CategoryPhilosophy

Time to get reading – getting into Yoga Philosophy during lockdown

Time to get reading - getting into Yoga Philosophy during lockdown

As yoga teachers and students, how important is it to know about the philosophy of the yoga we teach?

Yoga Philosophy is a vast subject; the Vedas, the Sutras of Patanjali, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Upanishads, to name but a few. You could spend a lifetime studying just one of these. But yoga is a physical practice, so do we need to know about the philosophy of it to be fully-rounded yogis?

The answer is – why don’t you try it to see?

While we’re in lockdown, we have no choice but to become stiller. We can’t rush about, make plans and run into the future. We have more present moments. So let’s take this time as a gift to expand our mental and spiritual worlds, while our physical world can expand only as far as the local park.

Why study yoga philosophy?

Let’s look into the ‘why’ a bit more. In ancient times yoga was passed from guru to shishya (pupil). The knowledge of yoga was passed on orally, but most of this teaching is now lost.

What was retained is now written down in books. ‘It is difficult to learn through books, but they are our only means of progress until we come across that rarity, a true teacher or master’ says B K S Iyengar in his introduction to his ‘Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali’.

The yoga that we practice is incredibly important but, once we add in the theoretical knowledge, there comes a deepening understanding of WHY we do all this stretching stuff in the first place.

It becomes less about how many likes we can get for our latest yoga post on Instagram and more about the deep-seated motivation for getting on the mat every day.

But it’s important to remember that knowledge without experience is meaningless. It is better to come to the philosophy of yoga once you have an established home practice; then the meaning of what you’re reading is illuminated by your own experience.

A (very) brief history of Yoga Philosophy

We don’t really know when yoga began, but the estimate is around 2,500 years ago. Modern Yoga is an amalgam of lots of different Indian forms, but the earliest mention of yoga in a written form is in the Upanishads and the Mahabharata.

The Upanishads are part of the Vedas (meaning ‘wisdom’) – ancient Sanskrit texts, which are a collection of spiritual teachings and the basis of Hinduism. The Mahabharata is an epic tale (the other one is the Ramayana), which tells of the wars between two groups of cousins, as well as lots of devotional and spiritual teachings.

Within the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad Gita, in which Krishna’s teaching is infused with yogic concepts.

Following on from these works is possibly the most important philosophy of Yoga; the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Written somewhere between 500 and 200 BC, it is a collection of 196 aphorisms covering all aspects of a yogic life. It is called Yoga Darshana, which means Yoga Mirror, as the effect of yoga is to be like a mirror held up to show the seeker their true self.

In the 15th century, the sage Svatmarama wrote the Hatha Yoga Pradipika (Light on Hatha Yoga), which is much closer to a manual than the other works and is more like the yoga that we recognise and practice today.

Where to start

But where do we start? As yoga teachers, the most obvious place to start is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. As an Iyengar yoga teacher, I start all my classes with the traditional chant to Patanjali, so it would be a bit remiss of me to chant away to some sage I have no idea about.

However, if you’re expecting a handy guide on how to do yoga, you’ll be disappointed. The sutras are a series of aphorisms that take you deeper and deeper into the heart of yoga.

First of all, it helps to invest in a good translation, as it’s not an easy text. The one that I go to is B K S Iyengar’s ‘Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali’, but there are other good versions out there.

There are four sections or padas of the book.

  1. Samadhi pada – on concentration, or contemplation
  2. Sadhana pada – on practice
  3. Vibhuti pada – on properties and powers
  4. Kaivalya pada- on freedom from attachment

The first deals with where you’re heading – samadhi. It’s an aspirational way to start and is directed at those who are already well on their way to enlightenment. The second sutra in this section is the definition of yoga that most of us have heard of:

Yoga is the cessation of movements in the consciousness

The second chapter is for the less spiritually evolved (so, most of us) and covers the eight limbs of yoga, as well as the three great paths of yoga; Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga.  The third chapter is about the divine effects of yoga and the eight supernatural powers, or siddhis. These siddhis include the ability to change size, weight, to attain every wish and to gain power over all things – so eat your heart out, Marvel.

The final chapter is about achieving kaivalya when the sadhaka (seeker) attains liberation from the extremes of pleasure and pain and lives in a state of virtuous awareness.

Things to bear in mind

It’s not a religion. According to Patanjali, those who practice yoga can be of any faith, colour, creed, or sexual orientation (well, he didn’t say that, but I’m extrapolating). Anyone can do yoga, and their beliefs and values will be strengthened by the practice and philosophy.

Don’t be overwhelmed. Yoga philosophy was studied by sages who literally did nothing else, for their whole LIVES. Even in lockdown we still have a whole host of ‘things to do’. I return to the same chapters of my books over and over again. Sometimes, if I have 5 minutes, I just open the book at a random page and read what swims into view and just digest that one section.

Take notes. Have a notebook that you keep to hand, and then when something makes sense to you, jot it down. Or keep a handy guide of the meanings of some of the recurring words, like samadhi.

Where to finish

This is a tongue-in-cheek heading, as anyone who even delves just the tiniest bit into this vast subject knows that there is no ‘finishing’ this subject. Just as we never stop being students of yoga, we never stop being learners of yoga philosophy and where yoga strengthens body and mind, the philosophy of yoga brings spiritual health to enrich your yoga journey.

Poppy Pickles

The Cheeky Yogi Listens to the Nonsense she Spouts

The Cheeky Yogi Listens to the Nonsense she Spouts

Everything is subjective. Yoga is highly subjective. Words are subjective. Even left and right is subjective. I know that ‘traditionally’ left is, well, on the left and right is on the other side.

But if you stand in front of a mirror, then magic happens. What was left is now right. So it’s wrong, because it is right. See? Subjective.

(more…)

Four Paths to Yoga: Karma Yoga

Four Paths to Yoga: Karma Yoga

The subject of yoga is like Doctor Who’s tardis. Despite its apparent simplicity, yoga, once opened up seems to be as vast as the universe itself. Take, for example, the path of yoga. It’s the eight-limbed path, right? Well yes, but, no, wrong. There are actually three other yogic paths, that are also routes to the same end.

These four ‘routes’ all lead to the ultimate goal of Moksha, or liberation.  They are; the path of action, the path of devotion, the ‘royal’ path of yoga (or the eight-limbed path), and the path of philosophy or knowledge. They are called, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Rajah Yoga, and Jnana Yoga.

The yoga that most of us think of us ‘yoga’ is Rajah Yoga. But we’re going to focus on the first of these paths, Karma Yoga.

Why are there four paths?

Just as all of us have our unique strengths and natures, there are different ways to find the path to bliss. For the intellectually-centered, Jnana Yoga, the path of philosophy is the route to take. For those that are heart-centred, they will be drawn to the devotional aspects of Bhakti Yoga. And the doers amongst us will find their route to self-realisation through selfless actions – Karma Yoga.

However, while some natures are better suited to one path or the other, they are not separate or non-interchangeable, and most of us can walk all these paths at different points in our lives.

What is Karma Yoga?

karma yoga others heart wellbeing
Image Credit: Eternalhappiness via Pexels.

We already know the term ‘yoga’, and most of us are familiar with ‘karma’ too. Karma is the sum of our actions, built up over our lifetimes (and previous lifetimes too if you believe in reincarnation). If your actions are for the good of others, then you’ll accrue good karma, and if your intentions are greedy, lazy or selfish, then equally you’ll build up bad karma. Karma Yoga is about learning to act with completely pure intentions, without any motivation of reward or recognition.

The Bhagavad Gita also gives an explanation of the term Karma Yoga:

Work alone is your privilege, never the fruits thereof. Never let the fruits of action be your motive, and never cease to work. Work in the name of the Lord, abandoning selfish desires. Be not affected by success or failure. This equipoise is called Yoga.’

How do we do Karma Yoga?

Karma yoga is the active pursuit of good actions without thought for oneself. As Mahatma Gandhi said, “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.” This doesn’t mean just be really busy. Most of us are pretty good at being busy already, without any further encouragement. It also doesn’t mean just being a doormat, rushing around and looking after everyone else.

It can be as simple as volunteering for a local charity and giving your time without any thoughts about how great it will make you feel or how good it’ll look on your CV. In the small, but perfectly formed book, Yoga, the author, Ernest Wood, explains:

When the actions of daily life are permeated by the buddhic devotion to life, those actions become yoga, karma-yoga. Every action can thus be yoga. Washing dishes with love is yoga. The actions going on in a dishwasher are not.

Here when he says ‘buddhic’, this doesn’t relate to the religion of Buddhism, but to the Buddhi, which is our intelligence centre.

Karma Yoga and Dharma

There is also an element of dharma, or duty, to Karma Yoga. Doing one’s duty, as our dear old Queen would say, is pretty unfashionable these days. Being dutiful is seen as being passive and dull. But having a sense of duty, or knowing one’s duty, can be part of acting in a Karma Yoga way.

Karma happy smile wellbeing
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The idea of duty as set out by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita is that all beings are dependent on each other, and therefore, it is your duty to use your natural talents and abilities, as well as your position in the world (such as a position of power or responsibility) for the welfare of everyone around you.

 

In other words, it is your duty to be as wonderfully you as it is possible to be, not to show how wonderful you are, but because it will benefit the world.

Karma Yoga and Yoga

In Yoga, Ernest Wood writes that it is the duty of the yoga teacher, not only to teach yoga but to encourage their students to do ‘right actions’. This means not acting out of a desire for bodily pleasure or self-satisfaction, but acting with a sense of sacrifice, so that there is no personal attachment to actions.

How can we do this ourselves as teachers and students of yoga? We can spend a little more time on self-examination. How do we know whether our actions come from the ego, or from a place of intelligent sacrifice? We have to use our ‘buddhi’ – the intelligence centre mentioned above.

karma yoga open arms
Image Credit: Lucas Pezeta via Pexels.

In the end, the purpose of Karma Yoga is not to label each action, ‘good’ or ‘bad’.  It is that it gently encourages us to use the deep-seated wisdom that is already present inside all of us. To use this wisdom to move away from habitual actions and to really live our lives in as present a way as possible. As Ernest says:

Joy goes with the whiteness of the karma-yoga, because there is more life in it.

Poppy Pickles

The Definitive Guide to the Mudras

The Definitive Guide to the Mudras

Where would we be without our hands? We do so much with them.

They express our innermost feelings even when we ourselves aren’t even aware of it, the opposable thumb and index finger give us the fine motor skills that differentiate us from most of the animal kingdom (bar the monkey family). Our hands are used to stroke our children, communicate, write, shake hands in greeting, and also as weapons when curled into fists.

mudra jana yoga meditation
Image Credit: Syed Bukhari via Pexels.

The hands are also important in yoga, and nowhere more important than in the practice of mudras, meaning seal, mark or gesture. Most mudras (but not all) are gestures with the hands and are specific positioning of the fingers, thumbs, and whole hands. Historically they are used in religious ceremonies and rites to symbolise different meanings.

But what are they? Can they actually benefit us, or are they just symbolic gestures used in ceremonies and rituals?

The Mudras and Prana

Mudras are not just symbolic hand gestures, they are so much more. This becomes clearer when we factor in prana – or subtle energy. The goal of the yoga postures is to prepare the body for pranayama, or control of the breath. When we practice the mudras, this is another way of influencing the dispersal of prana throughout the body.

In Mudras for Modern Life Swami Saradananda writes:

Since ancient times, Indian philosophy has taught that how the fingers move and touch each other influences the flow of prana, the life-giving energy within the body.

Mudras are so effective because they help to clear energetic blockages, which impede the flow of prana through the body.  This is because the energetic pathways (called nadis) mostly either start or finish in your hands or feet. So working with your hands is a particularly effective way of cleansing these subtle channels of any impurities, and directing the prana in healthier directions.

Mudras and the Chakras

The mudras also affect the flow of prana through the chakras. The chakras are particularly important to clear because they are points where the nadis intersect with the most density. The seven main chakras are located along the spine, moving up from the root, lower abdomen, solar plexus, heart, throat, forehead and the crown of the head. But there are also other chakras, such as the ones in the hands. These are also essential as they are directly linked to the heart and transmit a flow of healing energy out from the heart centre.

For example, Anjali Mudra (or Namaskarasana), which is the joining of the palms and bringing the base of the thumbs to the base of the breastbone, aligns the hands with the heart chakra.

The Mudras and the Elements

mudras earth element yoga
Image Credit: Bartosz Bąk via Unsplash.

Each finger and thumb relates to one of the five great elements.

  • the thumb relates to fire
  • the index finger relates to air
  • the middle finger relates to ether
  • the ring finger relates to earth
  • the little finger relates to water

So, mudras that focus on the different fingers and thumbs have a different set of elemental, energetic and emotional benefits.

Some Important Mudras

Some mudras come up with more frequency and are perhaps more important than others. Jnana Mudra, for example, is traditionally used in Siddhasana (Sage Pose) and during pranayama. B K S Iyengar gives this clear description in Light on Yoga:

Stretch the arms out straight and rest the back of the wrists on the knees. Join the tips of the index fingers to the tips of the thumbs, keeping the other fingers extended. (This position or gesture of the hand is known as the Jnana Mudra, the symbol or seal of knowledge. The index finger symbolises the individual soul and the thumb the universal soul. The union of the two symbolises knowledge.)

Sanmukhi mudra is another important mudra, which is often used to prepare the body and mind for pranayama and meditation. San means six and mukha means mouth. Sanmukha is the name of the six-headed god of war, also known as Kartikeya. This mudra is also known as Parangmukhi Mudra (facing inwards), as the student looks within himself to find the very source of his being.

Sanmukhi mudra is when the hands are placed over the face shutting out the outside world. The ears are blocked by the thumbs, the index fingers and middle fingers rest over the eyelids and the ring fingers and little fingers control the breath. The senses are turned inwards, the sound of your own rhythmic breathing calms the mind, and there is a feeling of inner peace.

Some Non-hand Mudras

As mentioned at the beginning of the article, not all mudras are to do with hand gestures. Khechari Mudra – literally ‘roaming through space’ – is a tongue mudra, and is NOT to be tried at home. Described in the religious text Gheranda Samhita (3:25 – 28), it is described as cutting the lower tendon of the tongue and moving the tongue constantly (aided with the addition of fresh butter) and drawing it out with an iron instrument. Once achieved the practitioner will experience no hunger, thirst, fainting or laziness…we’ll pass on that one, thanks!

Maha Mudra – the great seal, is a whole-body mudra, or pose, which also encompasses the three main bandhas, Jalandhara Bandha, Uddiyana Bandha, and Mula Bandha, in order to seal prana within the body.

The Benefits of the Mudras

In order to feel the benefits of the mudras, you need to practice regularly, preferably daily, and for a decent amount of time. But if you are prepared to put in the time, regular practice can help to:

  • ensure prana moves freely to keep your body and mind well-balanced and healthy
  • increase flexibility and mobility of your hands, wrists, arms, and shoulders

    meditation yoga man seated mudra
    Image Credit: Spencer Selover via Pexels.

  • improve technique if you play an instrument or hand-intensive sport
  • boost mental acuity and concentration
  • ease symptoms of common ailments
  • overcome emotional difficulties, from anger to grief
  • purge your sub-conscious mind of negativity
  • develop a regular meditation practice
  • encourage inner peace and a sense of oneness with the universe

However, there are a couple of mudras that you can do, which will give you an immediate result, such as Bhairava Mudra. Place the left hand in the lap and rest the right hand in the palm of the left, cradling it. This mudra is for when you find yourself in a situation that you find scary, and will bring you an immediate sense of peace.

Poppy Pickles

Yoga and Charity – How we can Give Back

Yoga and Charity - How we can Give Back

We come to yoga for many different reasons. To reconnect with our bodies, overcome stiffness and – let’s be honest – get a body like some of those lithe yogis we see on Instagram. But once yoga has arrived in our lives, those reasons can change.

Among other things, yoga teaches us to disconnect with the stresses and strains of everyday life and to reconnect with what’s important in life. That can be time spent with loved ones, being grateful for physical health and so on. But it also encourages us to find a way to give back to the world.

global conscience yoga earth
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An element of being a part of the global yogic ‘family’ is that it gives you a global conscience. Without sounding all smug and holier than thou, it’s hard to do yoga, which brings you in touch with your body and ignore the wrongs and suffering going on in the world.

In fact, one of the lesser-known niyamas (number seven of twelve) is Dānam, a Sanskrit word that means charity. Charity can get a bad rap, but without it, the world as we know it wouldn’t function.

How can we be charitable through yoga?

In the Bible (which we don’t often cite on this blog!), 1 Corinthians 13:13, it says

And now abideth faith hope and charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.

So the Bible is telling us that charity (or love) is literally the best virtue there is. But what really is it? Charity is service without expectation of reward, it is the giving of one’s time freely, and sharing your wealth with compassion.

And there are plenty of ways that we can use yoga to be more charitable.

Giving yoga to those who need it most

A way of giving charity through service is to teach yoga for free to those who really need it.

yoga children helping teach
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For those of us that practice yoga a lot, the benefits are self-evident. And that’s when it can start to become a bit of an evangelical mission to give the gift of yoga to as many people as possible. There are plenty of pre-existing charities that run yoga lessons for those in prison, the homeless and yoga for mental health. But what about yoga in schools for teenagers suffering from anxiety? Or chair yoga for the elderly and infirm in your local nursing home? Yoga has boundless benefits for those with physical and mental problems and there is literally no barrier to doing yoga. So let’s get out into the world and make a difference!

Using yoga as a way to raise money

One of the most straightforward ways is through using yoga as a means to raise money. A couple of years ago I took part in a sponsored yogathon when a large group of us gathered in a local park and performed 108 sun salutations, raising money for Greenpeace. Standing in a huge circle with my yoga friends and colleagues, stretching up toward the actual sun (incredibly for the UK, it was actually beaming down on us) and pressing my hands and feet down towards the earth, it felt like a completely YOGIC thing to do.

It doesn’t have to be 108 sun salutations though (my arms were SORE for the next week), you can do anything! What about a sponsored handstand challenge? Or a group of you could get together to do a headstand in a public place as a way of drawing attention not only to your cause but to how epic yoga is too. Or a sponsored ‘standing pose challenge’ where you run through every single standing pose a few times. Or just hold a ‘charity’ lesson, where students come and donate as much as they can for a chosen cause. The possibilities are endless.

Volunteer on a yoga holiday

yoga holiday volunteer teach
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To be fair, this is not the most selfless way to combine yoga and charity, but it’s a very canny way! If you simply don’t have the funds to go on a yoga holiday, but you know that you would benefit so much from time away from your life to just be somewhere lovely, doing yoga, chatting to lovely yogic people, and generally overdosing on all the loveliness, there’s a way that you can go, for just the cost of your travel.

In return for putting in some shifts (around five-six hours a day) helping out with food prep, cleaning and other chores, you can go on some yoga retreats for free. This can be a great way to get some undiluted yoga without emptying your bank account. Some companies that offer this are barefootyoga.me and Eco retreats, which offers free accommodation in a beautiful rural forest in Wales in return for helping out in the forest and teaching the odd class.

We don’t have to give too much away for free

A small counter to being charitable, which is important, is to remember that yoga teachers do already give a lot already. We give our skills, energy, time, care and thought to each and every one of our students. So if you don’t have time to do a sponsored yogathon, or teach a free class to the deserving, don’t beat yourself up. You’re already giving a lot.

Poppy Pickles